Warning: In this section I decided to display the literal transliteration that is to say the word as it is written and NOT as it should be written. The transliteration of reference will be mentioned when known to me. The comparison of both will reveal in full to the reader the Ancient Egyptians' stenographical way of writing.

The vocabulary displayed is partly built on the book of Raymond O. FAULKNER, A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford, 1962. Specials thanks are given to the Griffith Institute for the permission to use it.

Teaching of Kagemni




Gardiner, Alan H. The instruction addressed to Kagemni and his brethren, in JEA 32 (1946), pl. 14 and p. 71-74


wḏȝ(.w) snḏw ḥs(.w) mt wn(.w) ẖn n grw

wsḫ(.w) st nt hr mdw w spd(.w) ds.w

r th mtn nn ḥn n ỉs ḥr sp.f

ỉr ḥms.k ḥnʿ ʿšȝt

msḏ t mr.r(w).k

ȝt pw kt.t dȝr-ỉb

ḫw pw ȝfʿ ỉw ḏbʿ.t(w) ỉm

ỉw ỉkn n mw ʿḫm.f ỉbt

ỉw mḥt r (m) šww smn.f ỉb

ỉw nfrt ỉdn bw-nfr

ỉw nh n ktt ỉdn wr

ẖs pw ḥnt.n ẖt.f

swȝ tr

smḫ.n.f wstn ẖt m pr.sn


ỉr ḥms.k ḥnʿ ȝfʿ

wnm.k ȝḫf.f swȝ(.w)

ỉr swrỉ.k ḥnʿ tḫ

šsp.k ỉw ỉb.f ḥtp.w

m ȝd.w r ỉwf r-gs skn

šsp d(t).f n.k m wỉn st

ssf.t pw

ỉr šw.w m srḫ n t

n sḫm.n mdt nb.t ỉm.f

ḫtr.n ḥr r dfȝ-ỉb

ỉmȝ n.f kȝhs(w) r mwt.f

mrw.f pw bw-nb

ỉmỉ pr rn.k

ỉw gr.k m r.k nỉs.t(w).k

m ʿȝ-ỉb.k ḥr ḫpš m ḥr-ỉb ḏȝm.k

sȝw ỉtn.k

n rḫ.n.tw ḫpr.t ỉr.rt nṯr ḫft ḫsf.f

rd.ỉn ṯȝt nỉs.t(w) nȝỉỉ.f n ẖrd.w

m-ḫt ʿrḳ.f sḫr rmṯ

bỉt.sn m .ỉt ḥr r.f

ḏr.n ḏd.n.f n.sn

ỉr ntt nb.t m ḥr šfdw

sḏm st mỉ ḏd.ỉ st

m sn ḥȝw-ḥr šȝ.ȝt

wn.ỉn.sn ḥr rd.t st m ẖwt.sn

wn.ỉn.sn ḥr šd.t st mỉ ntt m

wn.ỉn nfr st ḥr ỉb.sn r ḫt nb.t

nty m pn r-ḏr.f

wn.ỉn ʿḥʿ.sn ḥms.sn ḫft

ʿḥʿ.n ḥm n nswt-bỉt ḥw-n-ỉ mnỉ.n.f

ʿḥʿ.n sʿḥʿ(.w) ḥm n nswt-bỉt snfrw m nswt

mnḫ m pn r-ḏr.f

ʿḥʿ.n rd kȝ-gm-n-ỉ r ỉmy-r nỉwt ṯȝt  

ỉw.f pw