Warning: In this section I decided to display the literal transliteration that is to say the word as it is written and NOT as it should be written. The transliteration of reference will be mentioned when known to me. The comparison of both will reveal in full to the reader the Ancient Egyptians' stenographical way of writing.

The vocabulary displayed is partly built on the book of Raymond O. FAULKNER, A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford, 1962. Specials thanks are given to the Griffith Institute for the permission to use it.

Ivory Tablet of King Qa'a


Petrie, William Matthew Flinders, The royal tombs of the earliest dynasties. 1901. Part II, EEF 21, London 1901, plate 12, n. 6; Helck, Wolfgang, Untersuchungen zur Thinitenzeit, Ägyptologische Abhandlungen, Band 45, Wiesbaden 1987, p. 164 and 173

rnpt sp 6 (mA nsw in sHm(?)) mDHw.y bit (aS SnDt )

tpi-HAt Hknw Hwt it(?) (r) Hwt p-Hr-msn Hr q(A)-a nbty sn

mDHw mDHw(w) nswt nfr-f

Cylinder Seal of Peribsen



(swD) xt nb(t) nb.t (nby) Dd(t).n.f n sA.f nswt-bit tAwy pr-ib-sn

First Intermediate Period Texts


Vandier, Jacques, Clère, Jacques J., Textes de la première période intermédiaire et de la XIe dynastie, Bruxelles, 1948 ; Breasted, James Henry, Ancient records of Egypt : historical documents from the earliest times to the Persian conquest, 5 vol., Chicago, 1906-1907, vol. I ; Lichtheim, Miriam, Ancient Egyptian literature : a book of readings, 3 vol., Berkeley, Londres, 1973-1980, vol. I


Breasted I, 198

Htp-di-nswt inpw tpy-Dw-f imy-wt nb tA-Dsr pr-xrw n rpa HAty-a Hry-tp aA n wAst mH ib n nswt m r-aA Smaw iwn aA sanx

tAwy mr.f mr Hm-nTr imAxw xr nTr-aA nb pt in-it-f


Lichtheim, p. 94

Htp-di-nswt ... pr-xrw xA t Hnqt xA iH Apd xA Ss mnxt xA xt nb(t) nfr(t) n imAxw xr ra-tm imy mSrw.w.f imAxw xr Hwt-Hr ... Dd.f sDA.k tr

it.i ra n wD.t.k w Hbs Tw tr pt n wD.t.k w wD n grH imy.w.f sk ix gm(.k wi m swAS.yw) Tw ra dwA.ww Tw m prwt.k nx.xyw

m Htp.t.k Xnm w grH Hn w wSAw m wDt.k ra ... ink sti.k ir.n.k w m nb anx iwt mni.n.f wD (wi) n bkAt

ix stp.sn sA.sn Hr(.i) wD (wi) n ... d.f sA.f HA(.i) ink snq m bkA ink snq m bkAt ms.y m grH ir.y

anx.f ... snD.f n iAwt wDbwt(?) ab.w iw sA HA(.i) m Tms irt.k gm.k w m xsf.k

i wr.w ipw imnty.w pt i nTrw ipw imnty.w pt i Hr.w

idb.w imnty.w pt Ha.ayw m xsf Hwt-Hr mr.rw mAAwt

nfr.s d.y(.i) rx.s Dd(.i) r-gs.s (ntt) Ha.kw(i) m mA.s Drt.y(.i) m-m iw n(.i) sp 2 Xt(.i) Dd.s spt.y wHm.sny iHy wab

n Hwt-Hr iHy HH.w sp.w ir Dr mr.r.T iHy iw HH.w n iHy n kA.T r swt.T nb(t)

ink wnnt dd srs dwA iHy n Hwt-Hr ra nb r wnwwt nb(t) mr.rt.s Htp ib.T m

iHy sDA r.T nfr m Htp Hkn.T m anx m Awt-ib Hna Hr mr.r Tn wSb Hna.T m Htpt.T wnm Hna.T m DfAw ip.T w r.s ra nb

Hr wAH-anx imAxw xr wsir sA-ra in-it-f-aA ms nfrw

d.f irTt n ra Hnqt n Hwt-Hr Dd.f mr.rt.sny

(Hnqt) irTt


Breasted I, 199

... iw mH.n(.i) Hwt-nTr.f m Hswt Sps.t r xnp qbHw n gm.t.n

ir s pw ... tpw-awy xpr.w ... n nHH Hna Dt iw grt

qd.n(.i) Hwwt-nTr.sn sqAH.w rwd.w.sn srwD arrwwt.sn smn Htp-nTr.sn n ...

Dt gm.n(.i) ... tAS.s mHt r wADyt Hw.n(.i) mnit m int Hs(t)(?) iw

iT.n(.i) tA-wr mi-qd.f wn.n(.i) itHw.w.s nb(w) ir.n(.i) s m aA mHw ... mi nwy

aA xt mi wAD-wr Spss n Ax n niwt aA n ... tA pn swD.n(.i) n sA.i Ds(.i)

... n isft pr.t m r.i n mdt sn.t Dd.t.n(.i) n Ar(?) n Hry Sa.f

n nS(?) n Hry xt tf.f n tm sDm mdw.f ... im.s(?) n nHH

Hna Dt rnpt-sp 50 smn.t(w) wD pn Hr ... in Hr wAH-anx nswt-bit sA-ra in(-it-f)-aA ms nfrw

... Dd.Tn xA m t Hnqt iH Apd Ss mnxt xA (m) xt nb nfr n Hr wAH-anx nswt-bit sA-ra in-it-f-aA

bHkAi r-Dd mA-HD

phts r-Dd kmw

tkr ...





20) Breasted I, 201

Hr wAH-anx nswt-bit sA-ra in-it-f ms nfrw anx mi ra Dt bAk.f mAa n st-ib.f xnty st m pr nb.f sr aA n ib.f rx xrt-ib nb.f

Sms sw r nmtwt.f nb(t) wa ib Hm.f n wn-mAa HAt wr.w nw pr-nswt xnty xtmt m st StA.t HAp.t.n nb.f r wr.w sxmx-ib

Hr m mr.t.n.f imy-ib nb.f mry.f mr n xtmt xntt(?) st StA.t mr.rt nb.f mr xtmt Xry-tp nswt imAxw TTi Dd

ink mry nb.f Hsy.f m Xrt-hrw nt ra nb iw ir.n(.i) aHaw aA m rnpwt xr Hm n nb(.i) Hr wAH-anx nswt-bit sA-ra in-it-f isT tA pn Xr st-Hr.f

xntt-r ... pHt-r Tn sT w m bAk.f nDt.f Xry-tp.f n wn-mAa iw saA.n.f w sxnt.n.f st(.i) d.n.f w m st-xrt-ib.f

m aH.f n waaw xtmt m-a(.i) Xr Dbat(.i) m stp.w n nfrt nb.t in.nt n Hm n nb.i m Smaw m tA-mHw m sip nb n sxmx-ib m inw

n tA pn mi-qd.f n snDw.f xtxt tA pn in.nt n Hm n nb(.i) m-a HqA.w Hryw-tp dSrt n snDw.f xtxt xAswt aHa.n rd.n.f n(.i) nn rx.n.f

iqr st-a(.i) aHa.n smi.n(.i) n.f st n sp iw.t xt nb(t) im nt xsf n-aAt-nt rx-xt(.i) ink wnnt imy-ib n nb.f mAa sr aA n ib.f

qb srf m pr nb.f xAm rmn m-m wr.w n wd.n(.i) m-sA bw-Dw msD.w rT Hr.s ink mr.f

nfrt msD.f Dwt-qd mrrw m pr nb.f ir(r) Smt nb(t) r mDdw n ib n nb.i ir grt Smt nb.t wD.t.n.f n aHa(.i) Hr.s ...

... n th.n(.i) Hsbw wD(w).n.f n(.i) n rd(.i) nkt m st kt

... n iT(.i) xt m iwt ir(r) Smt nb.t ir grt ipAt-nswt(?) nb.t wD.t.n n(.i) Hm n nb.i rd.t n.f ir.y(.i) n.s wpt m mr.t.n nb(t) kA.f

aHa.n ir.n(.i) n.f st snfr.n(.i) sSm.sn nb n sp iw.t xt im n-aAt-nt rx-xt(.i) iw ir.n(.i) mXA n niwt sHyt r Sms nb(.i) ip.t(w)(.i) Hna

wr.w tr nb n sSm(?) hAb(?) Spss.kw(i) aA.kw(i) apr.n(.i) wi m iSt Ds(.i) rd.t.n n(.i) Hm n nb(.i) n-aAt-nt mr.r.f w Hr wAH-anx

nswt-bit sA-ra in-it-f anx mi ra Dt r sDA.f m Htp r Axt.f ixr m hA.t sA.f m st.f Hr nxt-nb-tp-nfr nswt-bit

sA-ra in-it-f ms nfrw anx mi ra Dt iw Sms.n(.i) sw r swt.f nb.t nfr.t nt sxmx-ib n sp Ts(?).f xt im n-aAt-nt rx-xt(.i) d.n.f n(.i) Smt nb(t) wn.t m-a(.i) m rk it.f Hr sDA.t.s xr Hm.f n iw xt nb(t) im.s ir.n(.i) hAw nb.w tp tA m Xry-tp nswt nDt.f wsr.kw(i) aA.kw(i)

xr Hm.f ink ir qd.f Hs.n nb.f m Xrt-hrw nt ra nb

Htp-di-nswt wsir nb ddw xnty imntyw nb AbDw m swt.f nb.t pr-xrw

xA t Hnqt xA iH Apd xA Ss mnxt xA xt nfr(t) wab(t) XAm-xt dbHt-Htp DfAw nw

nb AbDw t wab n pr mnTw qbHw Htpt DfAw mr.rt Ax.w

wn im n mr xtmt Xry-tp nswt imAxw TTi DA.f biA nmi.f

Hrt iar.f n nTr-aA smA.f tA ... m Htp r imnt nfr.t wn n.f

smt rmn.s d imnt a.wy.s r.f spr.f r DADt nTr(w) Dd.t(w) n.f ii.w

m Htp in wr.w nw AbDw d.t n.f a.wy m nSmt Hr wAwt

imnt xp.f nfr m Htp r Axt r bw nt wsir im wp.f wAwt

r mr.t.f r sbxwt imt tA-Dsr d n.f imyw-bAH a.sn Hr wart

rd.t Htpt kA.f Hna.f Htpt.f m-bAH.f imAxw TTi

mr xtmt imAxw TT

wn mrHt xft-Hr-n kA n imAxw TTi

Hsb Hknw sfT nXnm(?) twAt HAtt aS THnw

pr-xrw n.f d n.f dbHt-Htp apr.t m Abd m smdt m Hb.w nb.w n kA n imAxw Xry-tp nswt imy-ib n nb.f TT

rd.t a r stpt(?) wr.t n kA n imAx TTi

Smsw.f Trw

xtmw.f n st-ib.f mggi


Inscriptions of Heqaib


Habachi, Labib, Elephantine. 4, The sanctuary of Heqaib, Mainz am Rhein, 1985

Stela no 8

Dd.in HAty-a sA-rnpwt

wab swab wdHw.w m qbH

snTr ix nswt wab (m) dd.t nb.t n wsir HqA-ib pn

wab ix nswt wab

... wDA.t(i) psd mi ra m Axt sdgA(.w) sxm.w / sxmw stx Hr rd.wy(?) ir Hr iT.s sw in(w) n.f

... (irt) Hr tn wnm.t.n.k biA.t(?).n Xt.k ...

... i.i Hr sr.y tkA ir Hr ...

... iw mtrt nb.t nt sA tkA ...

Stela no 9

(...) ii.w m pr-nswt in smr.w imy.w aH n-aAt-n mr ...

sA-rnpwt sA H(a)p(y) sA nb-fnDt(?) Dd.f

(ink) qd Hwt-kA tn nt rpa HqA-ib m-xt is gm.t(.i) s wAs.ti wrt

qd.n(.i) n.f kAr.f smnx st.f smAw.n(.i) gm.t.n(.i) sb(t)

m-xt wn.f m tp-Sw inb.w.f wAs(.w) xm(.w) Dt.f

Hr nwA.f aSA st wS.t Hn.ti m ...

at.s nb.t mH.t(i) m xmaw xpr Ht is mH.t(i) (m mw)

ir.n saH dbt wS.t am.n.s tA swrt.s n xmt

nHH kAt.s mi ir(r)t rty n sxA.f xt r Dt wA...

pr Sw mi kkt tp-a tkA aHa.in qd.n(.i) s ...

ir.t.n(.i) n.f r HAtyw-a xpr(ww) Xr-HAt mnx st r xprt Hn n m-xt

sr n Hr-xnt(?) smnx n n iw.t.s ir.n(.i) n.f kAr

m inr sAt.f m inr ir.n(.i) n.f wsxt m kAt

nHH wd.t(i) m nhwt in inw Hr wAt.s

nb.t qd.n(.i) s Hr fd.t.s sAwt.s d.w m sntt r Dr Sa ir.n(.i) at

n wab(w) st-swr n Ab ir.n(.i) n(.i) kAr Hr imnt n (...)

ir.n(.i) twt im.f Sps(?) im.f mr.y(.i) skr ir.n.i

wdH.w m Hsmn Ha ib n ir(w).n.i n.f m-aAt mrt SA(t) (n).f

sxpr bAw.f m Hr-ib niwt.f qd pr.f rx n.f iwA sHtp ib.f

m gHs.w ir xrt(?) nb gHs nb Apd nb xp.t(y).f(y) r r-pr pn wnn msdt.f

n twt pr.s n Hm-kA ir HAty-a nb wab nb Hm-kA nb sS nb

sr nb nHm.t(y).f(y) s r twt.i sx.tw xpS.f mi

kA pn mnt(?) Ts.f mi Apd nn st.f nn st nt sA.f nn pr.f m

tA-st nn is.f m smt nn Ssp nTr.f HD.f iw.f n sDt ms.w.f

n xt xAt.f n s n tA i.i r.f m msH Hr mw m Hf Hr tA m xfty m Xr-nTr

Stela (fragment) no 11

(sA-ra) sHtp-ib-ra anx Dt sA-ra xpr-kA-ra anx Dt

... Smsw (nswt(?)) mr(.f) Hs.f

... .f ir.r Hs.st.f nb(t)

Block of stone no 20

i anxw tp tA swA.t(y).sn Hr

pr pn m mr.tn Hs.s tn rpa ...

mi Dd.tn Htp-di-nswt n rpa ...

qbHw(?) wsr n pr HAty-a HqA-ib qd(?) ...

Stela no 43

Htp-di-nswt stt nbt Abw anqt xnt tA-st Xnmw nb qbHw

rpa HqA-ib mAa-xrw d.sn pr-xrw (t Hnqt) iH Apd Ss mnxt snTr mrHt xt nb.t nfr.t wab(t)

TAw nDm n anx anx(w) nTr im n kA n xtm-bit xrp wsxt snb-Hna-f mAa-xrw

ir.n imy-r niwt TAt ib-(i-)ia mAa-xrw ms.n nbt-pr rn-rs-snb mAat-xrw

sAt wHmw in-Hr nxt-id(w)(?) mAa-xrw

Htp-di-nswt wsir nb anx-tAwy n kA n

Hmt.f nbt-pr Abt-ib mAat-xrw

Stela no 44

Htp-di-nswt rpa HqA-ib mAa-xrw

d.f pr-xrw t Hnqt iH.w Apd.w snTr mrHt xt nb.t

wab(t) anx.t nTr im n kA n

rx-nswt nb-anx mAa-xrw ir.n sbk-Htp mAa-xrw

ms.n nbt-pr Hpy

Statue no 45

Htp-di-nswt styt nbt Abw

d.s pr-xrw t Hnqt iH.w Apd.w Ss mnxt snTr xt nb.t

nfr.t qmA.t.n tA in.nt

Hap n kA n Hsw

m bnt Tni-aA

ir.n xntyw-kA ms.n gngn(?)

Stela no 46

i anxw Xry-Hb nb Hm-kA nb Hs Tn styt nt Abw Dd Htp-di-nswt n kA n iry-at mwt-wr(?) mAa-xrw

Htp-di-nswt styt nbt Abw anqt xntt tA-st Xnmw nb qbHw

n kA n iry-at mwt-wr(?) ms.n nbt-pr titw

n kA n rx-nsw nb-anx ms.n nbt-pr Hpyw mAat-xrw

Htp-di-nswt styt nbt Abw (anqt)

Xnmw nb qbHw d.sn Ax wsr mAa-xrw

TAw nDm n mHyt n kA n iry-at mwt-wr(?) mAa-xrw

ms.n nbt-pr titw mAa(t)-xrw

ir.n xwy mAa-xrw

n kA n rx-nsw nb-anx ir.n Hpyw

ir.n sbk-Htp mAa-xrw

imy-r pr Hsbw snb-n(-i) mAa-xrw nb imAx

imy-r aXnwty n xA m pr-wr sn-(i-)pw mAa-xrw

nbt-pr iti mAat-xrw

TAw n xft-Hr (...) ms.n nbt-pr i... (TAw) n xft-Hr tti ms.n ...

sS n pr-HD snb ms.n rn-(i-)snb xnrty HqA-ib sA bbi mAa-xrw

Hry-Dbawt(?) / Hry-xtm(?) n sS pr-HD HqA-ib ir.n s-n-wsrt

Stela no 47

imy-r aXnwty xrp kAt


ms.n nbt-pr ti-t

ir.n nHy mAa-xrw

HAty-a imy-r Hmw-nTr Xnmw-Htp

ir.n HAty-a imy-r Hmw-nTr xa-kAw

mAa-xrw ms.n nbt-pr


sS n pr-HD snb

ms.n rn-snb

imy-r wart qsty.w irt-nt

imy-r sAw.w anty

imy-r wart sS-qdwt iw-f-nr(?)

nbt-pr iti ir.t.n snbb

nbt-pr mnt mAa(t)-xrw

nbt-pr xrt-ib

nbt-pr snbbw

imy-r pr wr nHy

ms.n nbt-pr xrt-ib

sS at Hnkt xpr-kA

ms.n nbt-pr Hnwt-(i-)pw

imy-r aXnwty xrp kAt

xa-kAw-ra-snb ms.n

nbt-pr ti-t ir.n

nHy nb{t} imAx

imy-r wAH-kA mAa-xrw

iT.y(?) w xa-kAw

snfrw mAa-xrw

imy-r pr nHy

Smsw nb(-i)-Hr-n(?) mAa-xrw

anx (n) niwt s-n-wsrt

Smsw Sms-s-n-wsrt(?)

nbt-pr sAt-sbk

xtm.w(?) Xr a n imy-r xtm(w) sn-(i-)pw mAa-xrw

Xrty-nTr sbk-Htp mAa-xrw Xrd.f ptH-wr

Statue no 50

Htp-di-nswt anqt xntt

tA-st d.s TAw nDm n anx

Ax wsr mAa-xrw pr-xrw m Xr-nTr

m Hb nb n pt n kA n xtm-bit

imy-r pr wr Sms nsw titi mAa-xrw

ir.n mnw-aA ms.n nt-HDt mAat-xrw

Stela no 51

Htp-di-nswt Xnmw nb qbHw

d.f pr-xrw t Hnqt iH.w Apd.w Ss mnxt snTr Htpt

DfAw xt nb.t nfr.t wab.t anx.t(i) nTr im

n kA n rpa HAty-a xtm-bit imy-r xtmty.w Sms nsw

titi ir.n mnw-aA ms.n nbt-pr nt-HDt

Stela no 80

Htp-di-nswt stt Xnmw anqt d.sn pr-xrw t Hnqt

iH.w Apd.w snTr mrHt Ss mnxt xt nb.t nfr(t) wab.t anx.t(i) nTr

im n kA n wHmw aA-n-ib-r-f ir.n

nbt-pr Hn mAa(t)-xrw

Hmt.f nbt-pr snb-s-anx-s mAat-xrw

ms.t.n nbt-pr

snb-s-anx-s mAat-xrw nbt imAx

sA.f Smsw imn-nxt-snb-f-n(-i)(?) ir.n t-nt-ibwy(?)

sA.f sS n xnrt wr(t) in-it-f sA.f sS n (?)

iwy sAt.f nbt-pr nbw-n-ib sA.f mnTw-aA

ms.n snb-s-anx-s it.f wartw n niwt imn-nxt

ir.n nbt-pr ini mwt.f nbt-pr Hn mAa(t)-xrw ir.t.n sAt-imn

snt.f iw-bgtw(?) snt.f ini ms(t).n Hn

Stela no 81

Htp-di-nswt stt anqt Xnmw nTrw imy.w iw-rd(?)

d.sn pr-xrw t Hnqt iH(w) Apd.w xt nb.t nfr.t wab.t anx.t(i) nTr im

n kA n sAb nb-iw mAa-xrw ir.n snbbw mAat-xrw

wr-mD-Smaw ia-tw mAa-xrw ir.n nbw-m-tAwy(?) (mAa-xrw)

Hry-pr iy mAa-xrw ir.n nbt-pr mAwt mAat-xrw

snt.f kwHw-mt-s(?) mAat-xrw ir.t.n mAwt mAat-xrw

snt.f xADt(?) mAat-xrw ir.t.n nbt-pr mAwt mAat-xrw

sAt.s iti mAat-xrw sAt.s ky ir(t).n nbt-pr xADt

sn.f xwy(?) ir.n anx nt niwt ini mAa(t)-xrw

ippi-ipw ir.n iti mAa-xrw

it.f kwi-stxw(?) ir.n Xrt-Hst(?)


Stela no 82

...dd... mAa-xrw nb imAx

ini mAat-xrw nbt imAx

sn.f n mwt.f anx n (niwt)

bbi mAa-xrw ms.n ini mAat-xrw

(sn).f anx n xAt HqA xmt-n(w)

... ms.n ini mAat-xrw

nbt-pr iat-ib ms.t.n patt(?) mAat-xrw sA.s anx n niwt

mnTw-m-HAt mAa sAt.s nHy mAat-xrw

sAt.s HAt-Spswt mAat-xrw ms.t.n nbt-pr iat-ib mAat-xrw sns

Xn-m-aS(?) mAa-xrw ms.n snt mAat-xrw nbt-pr ini

ms.t.n nbt-pr Hnni mAat-xrw sn.s n mwt.s anx n niwt ddw-sbk mAa-xrw ms(.n)

snt.s nt mwt.s nxti-anx snt.s n mwt.s rn-s-snb ms(t).n Hnni mAat-xrw

Stela no 83

Htp-di-nswt stt Xnmw anqt

wAH(?) Htpt DfA ...

imny mAa-xrw ms.n nbt-pr

HA-anx-s(?) ... nbt-pr mr-sw

sA.f Hry tm imny mAa-xrw bbi

sAt.f mmi sAt.f w...

sA.f imny sAt.f (...) sA.f

imny sA.f snbbw sA.f

dbHn(?) sA.f

mr-sw sAt.f imny

sA.f xnt(y)-Xty-Htp

bnr... wHm anx ir.n wr-mD-Smaw km-n

Stela no 84

Hmt.f sAt-Hwt-Hr-snbt(y)sy(?) ir.t.n ipi sA.f sS n TAt sA-Hwt-Hr

sA.f TAw n sS n TAt nfr-Htp sAt.f nbw-m-tx(?)

sAt.f sbk-Htp sS n pr-nsw nfr-Htp-snb ms.n sAt-Hwt-Hr

mnat nbw-ddt-bbi(?) ms.t.n sAt-sbk sn.f sS Hry-xtm(?) n

pr-nswt sanx-snb-ptH(?) sn.f sS Hry-xtm(?) n pr-nsw

snb-(w)i-imn-Sri(?) snt.f Abt-ib sn.f sS n TAt

snb-r-Aw sn.f wHmw snb-t(y)-fy sA.f nfr-Htp-snb

sA.f sA-imn sA.f snb-r-Aw sAt.f s-n-wsrt-Srt(?)

Stela no 85

Htp-di-nswt stt Xnmw anqt d.sn

pr-xrw t Hnqt iH.w Apd.w snTr mrHt Ss mnxt xt nb.t nfr.t

wab.t anx.t(i) nTr im n kA n wr-mD-Smaw imn-m-HAt-anxw

ir.n iw-n-s-snb-s

ir.t.n snbt(y)sy

Hmt.f snbt(y)sy ir.t.n snbt(y)s(y)

sAt.f nfrw-imn-snb-Hna-s(?)

sAt.f snbt(y)sy-nfrw-xnsw(?)

sAt.f ib-(i-)iaw

sAt.f ddt-sbk-snb-r-s(?)

it.f Hm-nTr n mnTw

m mAdw


ir.n aA-kA-s

sn.f Hm-nTr n imn imn-m-HAt-anxw ir.n aA-kA-s mAa-xrw

sn.f imy-r Snt.w(?) imn-m-HAt-anxw ir.n Hnwt-(i-)pw mAa-xrw

sn.f Hm-nTr n imn imn-m-HAt-snb-f-n-i ir.n Hnwt-pw

wr-mD-Smaw imn-m-HAt mAa-xrw ir.n sAt-Tni mAat-xrw

mnat Hnwt mAat-xrw

Stela no 86

Htp-di-nswt wsir nb Ddw nTr-aA nb AbDw d.f pr-xrw t Hnqt iH.w Apd.w snTr

mrHt Ss mnxt xt nb.t nfr.t wab(t) anx.t(i) nTr im n kA n Hsbw

Hwt-nTr ipw-wr

ir.n iyy mry rpa HqA-ib

Hmt.f nHy ir.t.n sA(t)-sbk mAat-xrw

it.f rn-f-anx mAa-xrw

ir.n ip mAat-xrw

snt.f nHy

ir.t.n iyy

mwt.f nH...

ir.t.n f...

sn.f (...)

ir.n (...)

sn.f rs-r-f(?) ir.n (...)

ir.n kkw sAw-...(?) (HqA-ib)

Stela no 87

Hmt.f Hr-m-Hb mAat-xrw

sA-mnTw-nxt(?) mAa-xrw

Hmt.f sAt-sSSt(?) mAat-xrw xnms.f

mr.f sS n DADAt

rn-snb mAa-xrw mnat.f snt

sA.f anx n niwt iww(?) mAa-xrw

sA.f anx n niwt mr-f-snb(?) mAa-xrw

sA.f anx n niwt sA-mwt mAa-xrw sA.f

anx n niwt iw-nfr sAt.f rsw

sAt.f rsw ms(t).n Hr-m-Hb

Stela no 88

ir sr nb Hm-nTr nb wab nb rmT(t) nb(t) aq.ty.sn

r Hwt-kA pn mr.r.Tn

Hs.s Tn rpa HqA-ib mAa-xrw mi Dd.Tn

Htp-di-nsw stt Xnmw anqt d.sn pr-xrw ...

Stela no 89

Htp-di-nswt stt Xnmw anqt rpa HqA-ib mAa-xrw

d.sn pr-xrw t Hnqt iH.w Apd.w snTr mrHt Ss mnxt (xt) nb.t nfr(t) wab.t anx.t(i) nTr

im n kA n imy-r aXnwty

n xA n TAt srA-xaw-f(?) mAa-xrw nb imAx

it.f nxt-... nb(?)

ms.n mwt

ir.n nbt-pr sn...

Stela no 90

Htp-di-nswt wsir nb Ddw

nTr-aA nb AbDw Xnmw nb qbHw

stt nbt Abw anqt

sbk nb (?) nTrw xnty.w

wAwAt d.sn pr-xrw t Hnqt iH Apd xt nb.t

anx.t(i) nTr im n kA n wHmw bwbw

ms.n nbt-pr nHyt(?) nbt imAx

ir.n iwyt(?) mAa-xrw Hmt.f nbt-pr

ib-(i-)ia sA.f nxt-mntw

sA.f in-it-f sAt.f xnsw-Htp

sAt.f nni snt.f xmw

sn.f iy sn.f in-Hr(t)-anx

... snb-r-Aw

... sAt.s bbi sA-Xr...

mnat rn-snb-ktty(?)

Stela no 91

Htp-di-nswt stt Xnmw anqt d.sn pr-xrw t Hnqt

iH.w Apd.w snTr mrHt Ss mnxt xt nb.t nfr.t

wab.t anx.t(i) nTr im TAw nDm n mHt n kA

n imy-r pr wr nHy

ms.n nbt-pr snty mAat-xrw

n kA n ... imny mAa-xrw ms.n

Stela no 92

Htp-di-nswt stt Xnmw anqt rpa HqA-ib mAa-xrw d.sn pr-xrw t Hnqt

iH.w Apd.w snTr mrHt Ss mnxt xt nb.t nfr.t wab.t anx.t(i) nTr im

n kA n xtm-bit

imy-r AHwt sA-Hwt-Hr mAa-xrw nb imAx ms.n nni(?) mAat-xrw


n kA n wr-mD-Smaw imny mAa-xrw

ms.n nbt-pr nni(?) mAat-xrw

n kA n it.f sS n TAt imn-aA mAa-xrw ms.n SAbt mAa-xrw

n kA n imy-r pr ... it

imny mAa-xrw nb imAx

n kA n nbt-pr nn(i)

ms(t).n sAt-tx mAat-xrw

n kA n sn-wrt(?) mAat-xrw

ms.t.n nn(i) mAat-xrw nbt imAx

Stela no 93

Htp-di-nswt stt Xnmw anqt d.sn pr-xrw t Hnqt

iH.w Apd.w snTr mrHt Ss mnxt xt nb.t nfr.t wab.t anx.t(i) nTr im

n kA n (?)

DA-f(?) mAa-xrw ir.n mr-s-anx mAa(t)-xrw

mry HqA-ib mAa-xrw

it.f nxt-iry ir.n Hbggt

mwt.f mr-s-anx ir.t.n irtw mAat-xrw

Hmt.f rd-sn-i(?) ir.t.n snbt(y)sy

sA.f Hri sAt.f sAt-Hwt-Hr

snt.f iw-n-s ir.t.n mr-s-anx

Smsw Hri mAa-xrw

ir.n irtw mAat-xrw

wab Hnnw ir.n Hbggt snt.f Hbggt mAat-xrw

itt ir.t.n irtw snbt(y)sy ir.t.n DDy-bnw(?)

nbt-pr rn-s-snb ir.t.n wr-rn-s-snb ir.t.n irtw mAat-xrw

mnat bbi mnat ii-m-Htp anx n xAt HqA rn-snb

Smsw(?) rn TAw n sS wr snb-r-Aw (sAt).f sAt-imn

ir.t.n iw-n-s

Second Intermediate Period Texts


Helck, Wolfgang, Historisch-biographische Texte der 2. Zwischenzeit und neue Texte der 18. Dynastie, Wiesbaden, 1975-1995

6. Kai-Inschriften des Königs sxm-ra-xw-tAwy aus Semna

Helck 2 PI, I, p.3; Breasted I, p. 331

r n Hap n rnpt-sp 2 xr Hm n nswt-bit sxm-ra xw-tAwy anx Dt

r n Hap n rnpt-sp 3 xr Hm n nswt-bit sxm-ra xw-tAwy anx Dt

xft wnn xtm-bit imy-r mSa rn-snb Hr Ts m mnnw

sxm-nbw-kAw-ra(?) mAa-xrw

13. Stele des Phylenleiters imnjj-snb Louvre C 11

Helck 2 PI, I, p. 8; Breasted I, p. 342

Htp-di-nswt wsir xnty imntyw nTr-aA nb AbDw

d.f pr-xrw t Hnqt iH Apd Ax wsr m Xr-nTr

n kA n mt-n-sA n AbDw imny-snb ir.n wa-m-kAw ms.n nbt-pr nbt-it-f


iw.t sS n TAt snb sA TAt r iAS n.i m wpwt TAt

aHa.n.i Sm.kw(i) Hna.f

gm.n.i imy-r niwt TAt anxw m xA.f

aHa.n rd.n sr pn wDt m Hr.i m-Dd

mk wD(.w) swab.k pA r-pr n AbDw

rd n.k Hmww.w r nt-a.f Hna wnwt Hwt-nTr nt tA spAt Sna n Htp-nTr

aHa.n swab.i sw m pr Xry pr Hr m inb.w.f Hr-sA m-Xnw

sSw-qdwt Hr mH m Drwy m tit m im

m smAwy ir.t.n nswt-bit xpr-kA-ra mAa-xrw

aHa.n xw-bAq wDA(.w) r Htp st.f m r-pr pn

idnw n imy-r xtm sA-in-Hr(t) Hr Sms.f

aHa.n dwA-nTr.n.f n.i aA r xt nb.t r-Dd

wAD.wy ir nA n nTr.f

aHa.n rd.n.f n.i aHa n dbn 10 apr m bnrt

gs n iH

aHa.n sr n (?) wDA(.w) m xd

aHa.n mA nA n kAt

aHa.n.tw Ha.w im wr r xt nb.t

12. Stele des Phylenleiters imnjj-snb Louvre C 12

Helck 2 PI, I, p. 7; Breasted I, p. 344

nTr nfr nb tAwy nb irt-xt nsw-bit .... d anx Dt

sA-ra n Xt.f xnDr d anx Dt Dd wAs

n(y)-mAat-ra n(y)-xaw(-ra)

wD r d.t m Hr n mt-n-sA n AbDw imny-snb mAa-xrw m-Dd

mk mA(.w) nA n kAt ir(w).n.k

Hs tw ity Hs tw kA.f

ir iAwy.k nfr m tA Hwt-nTr nt pAy.k nTr

aHa.n wD rd.t n.i pHwy n rny

aHa.n wD rd.t m Hr.i m-Dd

bAk sipty nb nty m pA r-pr

iw.i Hr ir.t mi wd.dt nb.t

iw rd.n.i srwd.tw mnqb nb n nTr nb nty m pA r-pr

smAw xAwwt.sn Hna aS xAy wr.t

wnn.t m-bAH

iw.i Hr xrp ib.i Ax(.w) n nTr.i

ity Hr Hs.t.i

Htp-di-nswt wp-wAwt nb tA-Dsr

d.f TAw nDm n anx

n kA n mt-n-sA n AbDw imny-snb mAa-xrw ms.n nbt-it-f mAat-xrw

dwA wp-wAwt nb AbDw m (prw).f

in mt-n-sA n AbDw imny-snb mAa-xrw ir.n wa-m-kAw

26. Die von König Neferhotep usurpierte Grenzstele aus der Nikropole von Abydos

Helck 2 PI, I, p. 18; Breasted p. 337

ir.n.f m mnw.f n it.f wp-wAwt nb tA-Dsr

rnpt-sp 4 wD Hm.i a.w.s xw.t mk.t tA-Dsr rs AbDw n it.f wp-wAwt nb tA-Dsr

mi ir.n Hr n it.f wsir-wnn-nfr

n wn.t rd.t xnd rmT nb Hr pA tA-Dsr

smn(.w) wD 2 r rsy.f r mHty.f xt(.w) m rn wr n Hm.i a.w.s

ir(.w) (wD) rs tA-Dsr Hr nn wD.w nty r-mn-m a rs

mHty Hr nn wD.w nty r-mn-m a mHty

ir rf nty Tw nb r gm.t.f m-Xn nA n wD.w m msty(?) wab r Hnt.f

xr.tw (wbd).t(w).f

ir grt sr nb r d.t.f ir.t n.f HAt m-Xn tA st Dsr.t

smi.t(w).f wd pA hp Xr.f ir smt mi hrw pn

ir (swt) HAw nb n tA st Dsr.t

(m) bw ir.rw n.sn rmT(t) HAwt im

qrs.Tw im

ir.f n.f di-anx Dd wAs snb Aw-ib.f Hna kA.f Hr st-Hr mi ra Dt


32. Die Inschrift des Königs nfr-htp aus Abydos

Helck 2 PI, I, p. 21; Breasted I, p. 333

rnpt-sp 2 xr Hm n Hr grg-tAwy nbty wp-mAat Hr-nbw mn-mrwt nswt-bit xa-sxm-ra sA-ra nfr-Htp ms.n mwt-nswt kmi d anx Dd wAs mi ra Dt

xa.t Hm.f Hr st-Hr m aH wTs-nfrw Dd.in Hm.f n saH.w smr.w wnn.yw m-xt.f

sS.w mAa(w) n mdw-nTr Hryw-tp StA.w nb(w)

iw Ab.n ib.i mAA sS.w pAt tpt nt tm

pgA.w n.i r sipt wr

imi rx<i> nTr m qmA.f psDt m qi.sn

mAa n.sn Htpw-nTr

wdn Sat Hr wDHw.w

rx.i nTr m irw.f

ms.i sw mi tpt-a.f

ir.n.sn wi m nDty.sn r smnx mnw.sn tp tA

mAa.n.sn n.i iwat gb Sn.nt nb.t itn

rd(.w) n.i iAwt.i m Hry-tp tA

rx.f (sAt).i mt(t)

iw.i Hr ir.t mi nTr

iw.i rd.y.i HAw-Hr sip.t n.i

dd.sn n.i Hr mrwt.sn r ir.t xft wD.t.sn

Dd.in nn smr.w

wD.t.n kA.k pw xpr ity nb

wDA Hm.k r pr.w nw sS.w

mA Hm.k mdw-nTr nb.w

wDA pw ir.n Hm.f r pr-mDAt

wn.in Hm.f Hr pgA sS.w Hna nn smr.w

aHa.n gm.n Hm.f sS.w n pr wsir xnty imntyw nb AbDw

Dd.in Hm.f n nn smr.w

iw Hm.i Hr nD it.i wsir xnty imntyw nb AbDw

ms.i sw Hna psDt.f mi mA.t.n Hm.i m sS.w.f

ir.w qi.f m nswt-bit m prw.f m Xt nt nwt

iw.i m sA.f nDty.f msty.f pr(w) m Hry wsxt.f

rd.n n.f gb iwat.f psDt Htp.ti Hr.s

iw.i m iAt.f aA.t nt dd ra

sA mnx ms ms sw

Dd.i wrt d.i sDm.Tn st

wp.Tn ib r anx.f Xr.s

d.i rx.Tn anx mAa m sSrw n wAH tpy-tA

ir.t mnw n wsir srwd rn n wnn-nfr

ir.tw nn Ax n tA smnx.n tA nb

ink imy ib n it(.i) ra nb ntt iwtt

smnx.n sw nTrw m Xt

pr.n.f Tn(.w) m nswt-bit xpr nfr-HDt r dhnt.f

HqA.n.f psDt tm.ti

Dd.in smr.w ipn

ir imyw-pt iw dd.sn kA.t ib.k wD.t.n Hm.k xpr.w

rd.in Hm.f nis.tw n.f rx-nswt nty m-xt Hm.f

Dd.in n.f Hm.f

SAs ir.k m-xntyt Hna iswt aprw

m sDr grH mi hrw r spr.t.k r AbDw

d wDA xnty imntyw

ix ir.i mnw.f mi sp tp

Dd.in nn smr.w

nfr.wy Dd.t.k ity nb

ir.k mnw.k m AbDw n it.k xnty imntyw

SAs rf pw ir.n sr pn m-xntyt xft wD.t.n n.f Hm.f

spr pw ir.n.f r AbDw r sxa.w nTr pn

wDA pw ir.n Hm n nTr pn r nSmt nb / nbt Dt r ir.t (DAt).f

baH itrw aA m sT pwnt

spr pw ir.n.sn r-Xnw ...

iw.in.Tw r smi n Hm.f r-Dd

iw nTr pn wDA(.w) m Htp

wDA pw ir.n Hm.f m dpt-nTr

ist aHa.w pn gr(.w) m sktw.w imw.w

sDA nswt Ds.f r HAt tp-itr r snsn Hna nTr pn

rd.t mAa Htp-nTr n it.f xnty imntyw

antyw irp xt-nTr n wsir xnty imntyw m rn.w.f nb.w

wAH.n.f n nTr pn

sHtp sHtmw.w

sHr sbi Hr nSmt

aHa.n sxa.w Hm n nTr pn psDt.f iab.ti m-xt.f

iw wp-wAwt Xr-HAt.f wp.n.f wAwt m xfty.w.f

aHa.n rd wDA Hm n nTr pn r HDwt

Htp.f st.f m Hwt-nbw

r ms.t nfrw Hm.f Hna psDt.f

wDHw.w.f ms m Hsmn Hmt sXkr m aAt nb.t Sps.t nt tA-nTr

ist rf Hm.f Ds.f Hr xrp kAt.sn m HD nbw Hmt

Hm.f wab m abw nTr m kAt.f n nb imnt

isT rf ir (smA) sS Hmw n is mA sw kAt

(m) Hwt-nTr tn ... rf ...

isT rf ir Hm.f gm nn n sS.w Ds.f

n sp gm st sS nb nty m-xt Hm.f

rd.n nTr nn m ib.f m (sStA) mi wsir xnty imntyw nb AbDw

iw wD.n.f wnn m swHt

iw sxr.n.f sbi Hr Hm.k dwA.w.f hrw mi grH

iw xfa.n.f rqw.w n nSmt.k

sgr(?).f sbi m r-pqr

iw rx.n.f sbxw nw dwAt sbA.w nw sxt-iArw

Aw-ib.f Hr aAbwt.k tp-trw

m hrw.w nw prw nTr nb m wAg m DHwty

Hnty rnpwt.k im

sA.k mnx n wn.t Hr-xw.f mi Hr

iw nD sA pn it.f

msty.k sDfA wDHw.w.k

snDm sT Hwt-nTr.k

kf st-wrt wbA.w kAri.w aA(w) n ms sw

aHa.f m nswt Xr aHa nHH n tp-tA

rwD.f mi pt Dd.f mi tA

sk.f nHH mi nHb-kAw im

wnf ib n wab.w.k Hnk.sn n Xnty.w.f

Aw ib n dwA.w.k ir.w hnw n twt.w.f

nswt-bit xa-sxm-ra sA-ra nfr-Htp anx Dt n nHH ms.n mwt-nsw kmi mAat-xrw

Dd.in Hm.f

Sd.i n.k m xsf sbi.w.k m wAt nt r-pq

ir.i n.k ihy Hknw Hr wAt-nTr

spr.k AbDw m Aw-ib iw wr.w Xr-HAt.k

sHtp.n.k xrw.w

sdH.n.k a.w n (itnw) Xr ... m AbDw

(m) mSrw n xt-xAw

smAa-xrw.k m-Xnw wsxt

wn kAwt.k m Haaw

mrt.k m rSrS

xsf.n.i sbi.w Hm.k

snDm.n.i ib n it.i wsir xnty imntyw nb AbDw

mr nTr mr.r sw

iw m ib.k ir.t.i nb.t

smnx.k mnw.i m Hwt-nTr.k

d.k wn.i m Smswt Hm.k

srwD.k a.wy.i m Hknw

imi rd n.i a.wy Hmw-nTr m prt Hr xAt aA.t

sxA.sn wi m sxA nfr

nr.sn dm.w rn.i

Ha.sn m rd.t anx.i

mr.sn rd.t n.i Hknw m tr.w

r-pr pn m swD it.i n sA.f

iw rf wab nTr pn (iAAt).f n (iAwt).i

sA(?) xt iwat.f

ix mn.f Hr nst.f

sDm.w nn wHm.w wD.i

iw grt ir.t mnw m srwD pAwt nTrw

mTn wi Hr rd.t rx.Tn

rd.i xft-Hr.Tn

rs-tp.Tn Hr Hwt-nTr

dg.w m-di mnw ir(w).n.i

d.i sxr nHH xft ib.i

HH.i Axw n m-xt m rd.t sp pn m ib.Tn

wA r xpr m-Xnw st tn

ir.n st nTr n ib.i r smnx mnw.i m Hwt-nTr.f

r srwd xtm.i m pr.f

mr Hm.f ir.t.n.i n.f Ha sw m SA.t.n.i ir.t

rd.n.Tw n.f mAa-xrw

ink sA.f nDty.f

rd.f n.i iwat nt tp-tA

ink nswt aA pHty mnx wDt-mdw

nn anx rq.ty.f(y) wi

nn Tpi itnw.w.i TAw

nn rn.f m-m anxw

nHb.f kA.f xnty sr.w iw.f r-rwty n nTr pn

m itn.t(y).fy wD.t Hm.i

tm.t(y).sn ir xft wD pn n Hm.i

tm.t(y).sn sar.ww.i n nTr pn Spsy

tm.t(y).sn iAm n ir.t.n.i m Htp-nTr.f

tm.t(y).sn rd n.i Hknw m Hb nb n r-pr pn m-Xnw Hwt-nTr

mi-qd.s nt r-pr pn iAt nb.t nt AbDw

isT ir.n Hm.i nn mnw n it.i wsir xnty imntyw nb AbDw

n-aAt-n mr.r.i sw r nTrw nb.w

rd.f n.i isw Hr nn mnw.i aHa.i m HH.w nw rnpwt

mtnwt ir(w) m ir.t n.f

mAat pw (m) Hr-ib n nTr

106. Dekret des Königs nb-xprw-ra intf aus Koptos

Helck 2 PI, I, p. 73; Breasted, p. 340

rnpt-sp 3 Abd 3 prt sw 25 xr Hm n nswt-bit nbw-xprw-ra sA-ra in-it-f d anx mi ra Dt

wD-nswt n xtm nswt HAty-a n gbtyw mnw-m-HAt

sA-nswt Tsw n gbtyw qi-nn(?)

xtm nsw smA mnw sS Hwt-nTr nfr-Htp-wr

mSa r-Dr.f n gbtyw

wnwt Hwt-nTr mi-qd.s

mtn in.tw n.tn wD pn r rd.t rx.tn r-ntt

rd.n Hm(.i) a.w.s iw.t sS xtm-nTr n imn sA-imn smsw-hAyt imn-wsr-a

r ir.t sipty m Hwt-nTr nT mnw r-ntt

wnwt Hwt-nTr nt it.i mnw spr r Hm.i a.w.s r-Dd

xn bin wA r xpr m pA r-pr

TA.w xfty in wA n rn.f tti sA mnw-Htp

imi dd.tw.f Hr tA m Hwt-nTr n it.i mnw

imi xsf.tw n.f m iAt.f nT Hwt-nTr m sA n sA iw n iwa

ptx Hr tA nHm.w aqw.f Drf(?).f wabwt.f

tm sxA.t(w) rn.f m r-pr pn

mi ir.t r mity.f sbi Hr xfty nTr.f

dr sS.w.f m Hwt-nTr nT mnw m pr-HD Hr Sfdw nb r-mitt

ir nswt nb sxm-ir-f nb nty r Htp n.f

nn Ssp.f HD

nn wTs.f dSrt

nn Hms.f Hr st-Hr nt anxw

nn Htp n.f nbty m mrrw.sn

ir Tsw nb HAty-a nb nty r spr n nb a.w.s r Htp n.f

aHa rd rmT(t).f xt.f AHwt.f r Htp-nTr n it.i mnw nb gbtyw

Hna tm rd.t in.tw s nb n hAw.f n Xrw n it.f n mwt.f

r tA iAt

Hna rd.t d.t tA iAt n xtm nsw imy-r gs-pr mnw-m-HAt

rd n.f aqw.s Drf(?).s wabwt.s

smn.ti Xr.f m sS.w m Hwt-nTr nT it.i mnw nb gbtyw

m sA n sA iw n iw

Biography of Ahmose


Sethe NE, 1, Breasted, II, 6

1) Hr Xnyt iaH-ms sA ibAnA mAa-xrw Dd.f Dd.i n.tn rmT(t) nb.t

2) d.i rx.tn Hswt xpr.t n.i iwa.kwi m nbw sp 7 xft-Hr-n tA r-Dr.f Hm.w Hmwt r-mitt-irw sAH.kwi m AHwt aSA(t) wrt iw rn n qn m ir.t.n.f nn Htm m tA pn Dt Dd.f r-ntt ir.n.i xprw.i m dmi n nxb iw it.i m waw n nswt-bit sqnn-ra mAa-xrw bAbA sA r-int rn.f aHa.n.i Hr ir.t waw r-DbA.f m pA imw n pA-smA m hAw nb tAwy nb-pHt(y)-ra mAa-xrw iw.i m Sri n ir.t.i Hmt iw sDr.i m smt Snw

3) xr m-xt grg.n.i pr aHa.n.i iT.kwi r pA aHa /