Additional Remarks

- when two or more identical transliterations occur for the same word it means that this word is written once with 2 flowering reeds (M17) once with two diagonal strokes (Z4).

- the verb ii(i), to come is written i. (note the dot after the i) i. e. the ideogramm alone, followed by its reading signs.

- the verb iri, to make is written ir without reading sign, ir<r> or ir(r) with one reading sign and irr with two reading signs.

- in order to avoid confusion with the pronoun (.tw), the old forms of the pseudo-participle (old perfective), written in parentheses, are preferred: (.kwi), (.ti), (.w). There are 2-3 exceptions (marked in red), especially when the verb is preeceded or followed by another verb already ending with .tw.

- similarly it is the old relative form in (w) which is used instead of the new one with the prothetic i.

- the prothetic r is written (i.).

- if the A ending of a verb is a simple variant it is omitted (except the interesting form dA (rdj)):

agA--> awg to be burned, grilled

amA--> am to swallow

amA--> am to know

whA--> whn to throw down

wsfA--> wsf to be lazy

wSAwSA-> wSwS to break

wDfA--> wdf to delay

bAgA--> bAg to be tired

bStA--> bST to rebel

pxA--> px to open

mhA--> mh to be forgetful

nwA--> nw to see

nSiA--> nS to expel

ngA--> ng to break open

rwiA--> rw to go away

hAbA--> hAb to send

xbA--> xb to deduct, to subtract

swhA--> swh to boast of

sdgA--> sdg to hide

kfA--> kf to uncover

thA--> th to go astray

dgA--> dg to hide

dgA--> dg to see

dgAdgA-->dgdg to trample


- if the -nw ending of a verb is a simple variant it is written -n


anw--> an to turn back

wnw--> wn to hurry

wstnw--> wsTn to wander

wdnw--> wdn to be heavy

wdnw--> wdn to offer

mtnw--> mtn to provide with an inscription

mdnw--> mtn to provide with an inscription

nSnw--> nSn to (be) furious

hnw--> hn to pay attention

Hbnw--> Hbn to triumph

Hfnw--> HfA to wind

Hnw--> Hn to provide, to equip

Hnw--> Hn to go fast

Hknw--> Hkn to be joyful

xnw--> xn to alight

Xnw--> Xn to row

sfnw--> sfn to be friendly

sHnw--> sHn to command

sxnw--> sxn to argue

sXnw--> sXn to to stir up

Sbnw--> Sbn to meet (frequently), to mix

Snw--> Sn to feel (pain of childbirth)

qnw--> qn to complete

txnw--> txn to be damaged (eye)

tnw, Tnw--> Tn to lift up, to be distinguished

dwnw--> dwn to stretch, to lengthen


- some substantives, written with i or A ending in Middle Egyptian are offently written with y ending:


isy reeds

aAy the Great, the elder, the leader

bAy ba, soul

mtry witness

mDAy Medjay

rqy adversary

smy milk curds

sry goose, duck

sty odur, smell

sDmy servant

sDmy judge, authority

Tny Thinis

Drty Tod


- compound words are written without any dot.


- the plural ending of feminine nouns is written without any dot.


Egyptomaniak